The Tuska Open Air Festival has returned after the mandatory two-year break caused by the worldwide pandemic. The metal fans had patiently waited for the return as the festival was totally sold-out. All in all, 49,000 metal maniacs visited Tuska fest during three days. The line-up looked amazing for the crowd cos all the artists and bands received an immersive response. The Finnish Metal-Rules.com team was present the whole time and managed to catch several interesting bands during the three long days of pure metal madness. Here is the traditional write-up of the fest with several amazing pics.
Eluveitie had the prestigious responsibility of being the first band on the main stage on an opening day. The Swiss folk metallers have gained such a loyal fanbase in Finland, as the main stage’s front area was packed. The opening “Ategnatos” welcomed the six-piece to the stage, and in the wake of the song, several other great Eluveitie songs followed in order. The Swiss folk metallers sounded versatile by combining different elements of other metal genres in their music. They occasionally sounded like a fast melo death metal band or a band influenced by folk music. Of course, the female vocal parts crowded the whole hybrid approach. Occasionally Eluveitie tended to sound quite confusing. The singer and the growler Chrigel Glanzmann have guided the band thru up and down, but their Tuska appearance provided Eluveitie is alive and well.
Northern Kings is a Finnish metal cover supergroup consisting of four well-known vocalists: Jarkko Ahola, J-P Leppäluoto, Tony Kakko from Sonata Arctica, and Marko Hietala ex- Nightwish and Tarot. The band released two well-received albums, REBORN (2007), RETHRONED (2008), and a single,” Lapponia,” in 2010 before going on hiatus. In 2022 the band made a comeback and announced its first shows in 12 years.
Of course, the biggest interest at this gig was to see how Marko Hietala’s condition is nowadays. The man has kept a very low profile since his departure from Nightwish in January 2021, and these Northern Kings gigs are his first public appearances since then. The gig started with the instrumental track ”Training Montage,” followed by a thunderous version of Bon Jovi’s ”Wanted Dead or Alive.” Hietala was singing the lead and sounded damn good through the song. It also seemed that the break had made good for him because I hadn’t seen him that energetic in years. Soon the other vocalists took their spots on the stage too, and the show continued with the A-HA band hit ”Take On Me,” sung by all four together. After that, each vocalist had their solo numbers. Maybe the most impressive performance out of those was J-P Leppäluoto’s emotional version of Dire Straits’ song ”Brothers in Arms.”
The set’s final song was ”We Don’t Need Another Hero” (Tina Turner), where everyone got the stage together again. Although Northern Kings is just a cover band, they were very entertaining and damn energetic on stage. The song arrangements are interesting, the vocalists are incredible, and the band, fronted by Erkka Korhonen, sounded really tight. And yes, it can be said that Marko Hietala is BACK!
Wanted Dead or Alive
Take On Me
A View to a Kill
Kiss From a Rose
Brothers in Arms
Don’t Stop Believin’
We Don’t Need Another Hero
Lost Society was among the most anticipated and expected bands out of all Finnish bands. The thrashers have re-created their skin during the pandemic era. The old thrash metal vibe has been left behind, whereas the four-piece has adopted the more groovy-sounding elements to their stuff. Lost Society’s “112” started the one-hour set and was followed by “Artificial.” The group mainly focused on the material of the third album, NO ABSOLUTION released a few years back. At the same time, all the songs from the first two albums had been scrapped. That was kind of a pity cos it would have been fabulous to hear at least “Terror Hungry.” The band’s frontman Sammy Elbanne turned out to be one hell of a Duracell bunny running all around the stage, climbing the stage construction, and, above all, commanding the audience to arrange a huge wall of death ending up in a massive circle pit. Lost Society was a vital, ass-kicking, energetic act.
BEAST IN BLACK
Beast In Black has earned massive success since the debut album came out. That isn’t any surprise, as the guitarist Anton Kabanen has succeeded in creating such catchy yet disco-based songs with catchy riffs that appeal to big masses. Therefore the five-piece had got a massive crowd at Tuska. The set was kicked off by “Blade Runner” off the third album DARK CONNECTION. The Greek vocalist Yannis Papadopoulos sounded splendid. His pipes are genuinely amazing. Frankly, the whole metal genre would need more talented and skilled singers like the BIB singer. The band rocked hard on stage; pyros created a heating atmosphere, and all movements and choreographies were well planned and coordinated. DID definitely deserves kudos for looking at a metal band on stage, not some regular office work. The whole set was a pure BIB joyride featuring several known tunes such as “Die By The Blade” and “One Night in Tokyo.” Of course, the audience went totally nuts.
Ensiferum has been the leading name of the Finnish pagan/folk metal genre since its formation in 1995. The tent was packed with thousands of people when Ensiferum hit the stage. “Rum, Women, Victory” opened Ensiferum’s set and was immediately followed by “Token of Time.” Ensiferum proved how the folk/pagan hymns sounded so prestigious and bombastic without any gimmicks or extra instruments. The keyboard player Pekka Montin’s role as the second singer in Ensiferum has become a more and more important part. His voice and pipe gave a different approach than Petri Lindroos’ grunt. Besides new material off the latest Ensiferum album THALASSIC, the set had older, well-known tunes such as “Lai Lai Hei” and “From Afar.” Ensiferum offered a pretty standard festival gig at Tuska without any surprise.
Friday, the 1st of July. At 8 pm, people are lining up and gathering around the main stage, eagerly waiting for Carcass to step on stage and deliver us with its explosive demonstration of technical prowess and vegan death metal. The band that is a pioneer in a genre they helped to form arrives, and the first riffs of “Exhume to Consume” start.
It is no wonder that the festival area is full of people loyal to the band after over three decades of stellar songwriting and unforgiving death metal, as Carcass has shown us again and again that they are ever evolving. From the brutal beginnings with REEK OF PUTREFACTION to the genre-defining HEARTWORK until their latest TORN ARTERIES, the band shows us that there is no slowing down.
After a couple of songs, the band rips into “Kelly’s Meat Emporium,” and the energy on and off the stage is vivid; as the band feeds the audience to participate, so does the audience feed the band back.
Carcass is clearly happy to be back here, and you can feel the energy in the air. As the set comes to its end, they close off with “Corporal Jigsore Quandary,” “Captive Bolt Pistol,” and, as a cherry on top, “Heartwork” It seems that Carcass is at the top of their game, as it clearly shows in the satisfaction on the faces of Bill, Jeff, and Daniel.
Exhume to Consume
Kelly’s Meat Emporium
Incarnated Solvent Abuse
Unfit for Human Consumption
Under the Scalpel Blade
This Mortal Coil
Dance of Ixtab (Psychopomp & Circumstance March No. 1 in B)
Keep On Rotting in the Free World
The Scythe’s Remorseless Swing
Tools of the Trade
Corporal Jigsore Quandary
Captive Bolt Pistol
Heilung visited Tuska some ago and gained more passionate followers. To be honest, Heilung’s gigs and shows are primarily ritualistic performances and have absolutely nothing to do with the music. Listening to that kind of stuff at home is quite painful and tormenting. Instead, their performances and shows were fascinating. Some weird-looking shaman spelled incantations by jumping all around. Some chick with the white dress mumbled some spells or incantations. Several soldiers with spears were an impressive view. Heilung is such an eccentric combo. They are booked to metal festivals, shaman events, and all kinds of folk/ancient festivals/concerts. They seem to appeal to a wide range of audiences from different genres and subcultures.
THE NIGHT FLIGHT ORCHESTRA
The Night Flight Orchestra is a Swedish kind of all-star band led by singer Björn Strid (Soilwork). So far, the band has released six studio albums, whose trend and following seem to be growing all the time. A significant number of people saw the band’s performance when the band opened with the song “How Long.” The band’s sound is kind of a mix of 80s hard rock and 70s disco stuff, so they’re a strange animal in this year’s Tuska line-up. While watching the show, I wondered how bassist Sharlee D’Angelo (Arch Enemy) felt when his former band Mercyful Fate was put together without his involvement. Now he plays here at the same festival with this band.
The crowd seemed to really like Night Flight Orchestra, but to be honest, I wasn’t that impressed myself. The songs were okay, and the band played well. Still, the band’s image and overall impression reminded me more that they were a kind of session band that regularly plays on the ferry between Stockholm and Helsinki. Maybe there’s a joke I didn’t get.
Sometimes the World Ain’t Enough
If Tonight Is Our Only Chance
Burn for Me
This Boy’s Last Summer
West Ruth Ave
Korn did two festival gigs in Finland. They played at Provinssirock a day before their appearance at Tuska. The nu metallers seem to have got an entire new renaissance in their long career. The band underwent a struggling period in 2000 when things looked quite blurry for Korn. However, Korn had undergone some changes in the line-up as the bassist Fieldy has been on hiatus for a while. Instead, the Suicidal Tendencies bassist Ra Díaz has been recruited to take over Fieldy’s place. Korn was one of the expected bands for the Tuska Festival since the whole area was crowded. The opening song, “Here To Stay,” kicked the 90-minute set. The entire set was a firework of the Korn classics such as “Got The Life,” “Freak On A Leash,” “Twist,” “A.D.I.D.A.S,” etc. The snippet versions of Metallica’s One and Queen’s “We Will Rock You” were played in between songs and the middle of “Shoots and Ladders” and “Coming Undone.”As for the audience, it was surprising to see no ongoing pit at all either crowd surfing. Instead, the people jumped up and down and did a-singalong. That’s the certain eccentric response from the Finnish audience, who has arranged helluva circle pits in other Tuska events. As far as Korn is concerned, the band appeared slightly tired or worn out due to crisscrossing in Finland; the schedule had been quite tight. Korn pulled thru the show with a professional grip and attitude. The sounds were quite down-tuned, even though they could have been slightly more down-tuned at some point. The songs did sound like Korn, and the 90’s rock/metal bangers enjoyed it. As for Korn being on stage, Jonathan Davids being a showman in the band literally took the Korn audience. Head and Munky created the Korn riffs and jumped all around the stage in a weird position. The Suicidal bassist seemed to be having and enjoying being in Korn. The drummer Ray Luzier turned out to be a magnificent amazing drummer as his playing was tight without forgetting the stamina. Korn offered a solid performance with all the Korn hits, which pleased the Finnish crowd. And people were totally satisfied.
Bloodred Hourglass would deserve more attention, success, and a better opportunity to become another Finnish metal ambassador. BRHG (as well-known)’s songs have great hymns, melodies, and touching rhymes. As for their Tuska slot, they had been placed to be an opening act on the third stage on the second day. Fortunately, the audience had arrived on time to catch them. “We Form The Broken” kicked the one-hour set off. All in all, ten songs were performed. The 2021 release YOUR HIGHNESS played a magnificent part in the set as five songs got played off it. That was truly obvious as that album needed to have some push, as it is a damn great output. The band sounded good, but perhaps the burning red hot sun reduced the band’s stage activity. Though their Tuska gig wasn’t that energetic, the band handled the playing well.
JOE LYNN TURNER
It’s been several years since Joe Lynn Turner last performed in Finland. The former Rainbow and Deep Purple vocalist has always enjoyed a large following in Finland, and it wasn’t surprising to see a big crowd of people in the field when the legend started his set with ”Death Alley Driver.” More Joe Lynn Turner-era Rainbow hit songs were played one after another, including my favorites,” Street of Dreams” and ”Spotlight Kid.” Outside of Rainbow, the band only played ”King of Hearts” (Deep Purple) and ”Rising Force” (Yngwie J. Malmsteen).
71-year-old Turner still sounds good, and the backing band, which consists of the members of the Swedish band Dynazty, played very tight with a great attitude. The setlist didn’t include anything surprising. Turner has played the same songs for decades, so maybe it’s time to make some changes finally. It would be great to hear more his solo material, and there are also other very good songs on Purple’s SLAVES AND MASTERS and Malmsteen’s ODYSSEY but the ones he always chooses to play. I’m just saying, but how about doing next time songs like ”Fire in the Basement,” The Cut Runs Deep,” and ”Heaven Tonight”?
But what’s most important, most of the audience seemed to enjoy the classics. Turner and his band were basically the only old-school hard rock band in the whole festival, so they filled their spot well and proved that there’s still a lot of demand for this great stuff.
Death Alley Driver
Street of Dreams
Difficult to Cure
Can’t Let You Go
King of Dreams
Vltimas is a real wet daydream for all the death metal bangers. The band definitely stands for the old-school death metal agenda and besides the line-consists of legendary names of the extreme metal genre. David Vincent, Flo Mounier, and Rune Eriksen create the band’s core along with the second guitarist and bassist. The band was extremely sharp and technical at Tuska Festival. Especially Flo Mounier’s playing behind the kit was tight, precise, and above all, phenomenal. The fast songs like “Total Destroy” sounded incredibly intensive and insane fast. Flo’s playing made it sound even tighter. The band has improved the live performance a lot since their Brutal Assault gig when they were still finding the right balance in live situations. The whole package worked, and David Vincent felt more comfortable being on stage without the bass. Apparently, Vincent’s speeches between songs were occasionally quite cryptic and had some metaphoric meaning linked to songs. The death metal all-star combo delivered the set of what the extreme metal fans at Tuska were willing to hear.
Amorphis is a bricklayer of Finnish melodic death metal and has earned its place among Finland’s top performing and recording acts. It is Saturday the 2nd, the second day of Tuska. You can hear a homely, familiar, and reassuring intro from the main stage as the Finnish giants step on stage and begin their show with “Northwards,” the opening track from their 2022 release HALO. The sextet of professionalism plows through the songs with a light step, as the band is going strong after 32 years of experience. It’s clear that this is their home, as thousands of fans chant and sing to their every note. The set list is heavily based on songs from the latest two Amorphis albums, without forgetting the early albums, including their 1994 epic TALES FROM A THOUSAND LAKES, which has always been a staple of their live shows. The band closes its performance with “House of Sleep” as the evening sets down on Kalasatama. Undoubtedly, this show was one of the highlights for many sons and daughters of Finnish metal. Amorphis never lets down, the band always brings expertly crafted live shows, and you can rest assured that metalheads will leave the gig with a smile.
On the Dark Waters
Seven Roads Come Together
Black Winter Day
House of Sleep
Soilwork, one of the forefathers of melodic Swedish death metal, aka; “Göteborg metal,” closes Saturday at the inferno stage. With Björn Strid helming the iconic six-piece, the band launches with their blistering piece “Övergivenheten” from their 2022 album of the same name.
Formed in late 1995, the force that is Soilwork has been around for decades, without slowing down or taking a step back. Dirk Verbeuren (drummer), who joined Megadeth in 2016, has only made more people discover the Swedish machine that is Soilwork. The crowd is given classics such as “This Momentary Bliss, “Nerve,” and “Stabbing the Drama,” all fan favorites. The band closes the gig with “Stålfågel,” which seems to be a fitting end to the audience, as the crowd is singing along to every word Björn spits out. The only thing missing was a chance to play their song “Helsinki“ from their 2016 album DEATH RESONANCE, as it would be a great homage to Tuska and the people.
This Momentary Bliss
Full Moon Shoals
Stabbing the Drama
Nous sommes la guerre
The Nurturing Glance
The return of Mercyful Fate is something that the fans of old-school classic metal have eagerly but patiently been waiting for since the band started its ”temporary hiatus” in the late 90 s. When the comeback was finally announced in 2020, I think I was not the only one who was slightly disappointed that there would be only two original band members in the new lineup. Of course, it’s great to see King Diamond and Hank Shermann back together after 23 years of break. The original bassist Tim Hansen sadly died a couple of years ago, and the drummer Kim Ruzz hasn’t been able to play drums in a long time, but why the original guitarist Michael Denner was omitted, whereas he’s still actively playing?
Besides King and Hank, Mercyful Fate in 2022 consists of guitarist Mike Wead and drummer Bjarne T.Holm, who both played in the band in the mid/late ’90s. Sharlee D’Angelo, the bassist from the 90’s version of Mercyful Fate, is not a part of the band. Instead of him, there’s now a newcomer Joey Vera on the bass., He’s best known for his work with Armored Saint and Fates Warning.
It’s not been announced yet, how long this lineup will tour together or if they have serious plans to release new music at some point. So far, the band has released only a string of gigs in Europe and one in Las Vegas in late August. However, as far as I can remember, King has never disappointed me in a concert situation, so my hopes were high for this show as well.
Luckily the show didn’t start before it was all dark outside. The massive Mercyful Fate flag covered the stage front; then it dropped, showing the massive stage setting. There was a huge cross upside down, of course, in the back of the stage, a lot of stairs, devil heads, and tons of smoke on stage when the band started with DON’T BREAK THE OATH classic, ”The Oath.” The stage lighting was excellent and looked honestly saying ” evil” when everything was either red, white, or black. At the show’s beginning, King Diamond was wearing a massive ”devil mask,” which” looked funny with those big horns and stuff, but most importantly, his singing was in top shape.
Next, the band dropped a little surprise and played a new Mercyful Fate track titled ”The Jackal of Salzburg.” Well, I’ve heard this song a couple of times now, and to be honest, it’s nothing special. It’s like an endless pile of riffs after another, and the band’s signature stuff, melodies, and harmonies are missing entirely. Maybe the song will develop from this, but at the moment, it’s still nothing but a green fruit.
Fortunately,” A Corpse Without a Soul” from the band’s first EP put things fast back to the rails, and ”Black Funeral” raised the atmosphere even more. King Diamond finally took off his devil mask and switched it into some kind of crown, which deeper meaning I didn’t get. All the early Mercyful classics were heard, including ”A Dangerous Meeting,” Melissa,” the brilliant ”Come to the Sabbath,” and ”Satan’s Fall,” which was the last song on the set. It also featured King in his classic top hat look, finally.
I have to say that although MELISSA and DON’T BREAK THE OATH are true metal classics, I found it somewhat disappointing that, except for the new song, the band didn’t play any material outside of those two albums and the first EP. There are plenty of great songs on IN THE SHADOWS, TIME, and INTO THE UNKNOWN -albums, which were now wholly abandoned. And, the band’s last studio album, 9, is not a bad one either. Now Mercyful Fate would have had 4/5 out of the lineup on stage which played on that album.
However, King Diamond proved that vocally and as a performer, he’s still at the top of his game. It can’t be easy to sing all that ultra-high stuff at his age (66). Long live the king, but he would still forget using that strange crown in future shows. Unlike King, it looked like Hank Shermann has been too long away from the stage. Although his playing was great, he was mostly just standing in his corner, watching his guitar, without communicating with the others or the crowd. But overall, the renewed band sounded very tight together. And unlike Shermann, Wead and Vera were both quite active on stage.
Only time will tell how this Mercyful Fate reunion continues from now on. As said before, the band sounded great, King was in shape, and the stage production was handsome to watch. Hopefully, instead of being just a nostalgic act, playing the old stuff only, the band can create some new great music together. And of course, no one should not forget King Diamond’s own band, which has been working on new material for years already.
The Jackal of Salzburg
A Corpse Without Soul
A Dangerous Meeting
Doomed by the Living Dead
Curse of the Pharaohs
Come to the Sabbath
The Finnish death metal scene is living a new renaissance era. Old bands are still kicking asses, but many new and great death metal bands of the younger generation have risen to reach for more recognization with the brutal approach of their own. Cryptic Hatred has been terrorizing the brutal death metal since 2019, and the debut album saw the light of day in 2021. Their Tuska crowd was definitely keen on these young death mongers. There was a massively long line outside the indoor venue. Cryptic Hatred pulled the full house for their uncompromising death metal performance. The four-piece literally hammered a song by a song with a deadly grip. Occasionally the singer sounded a bit of Glenn Benton, which wasn’t a bad thing at all. Cryptic Hatred have picked up all the legendary names for their influences and added a bit of their own thing to the sound. However, the band kept sounding technical yet brutal without losing an inch. Hopefully, the band will carry the torch of brutal death metal without venturing into the weird, eccentric style as a number of death metal bands have fallen into that trap.
Gloryhammer feat. members from different countries and bands have risen to the A level of the power metal genre within a couple of years. Even though the previous singer got booted, the change and other hassles didn’t ruin the fame and the glory of Gloryhammer; instead, it just made the band stronger. The current singer sounded like a copycat of Thomas Winkler. Gloryhammer combined the basic power metal elements taken from Rhapsody, Helloween, etc., to make the hootch thing of their own. The gig was phlegmatic and not-so-energetic as it could have been expected. The band was the target of the burning red hot sun, making the stage infernal hot. Especially when the guys had these eccentric role clothes, being on the stage wasn’t an easy task.
It’s been seven years since the Finnish power metal band Stratovarius released its latest record, ETERNAL. But fortunately, things will change soon when SURVIVE album sees the light next September. The band, fronted by longtime vocalist Timo Kotipelto, started its 60-minute set with the old hit ”Eagleheart,” followed by ”Phoenix” and the upcoming album title track. The old hits have been heard numerous times, but ”Survive” and a later played ”World on Fire” sounded not only refreshing but also something new from this band. Both songs are a bit heavier and straightforward compared to almost anything the band has done before. This is just my personal opinion, but from a distance, the songs sounded a bit like Symphony X to me. It’s very promising stuff indeed. However, the best crowd reactions were still received when the band played the old classics ”Black Diamond” and ”Hunting High and Low,” which was also the last song on the set.
A current Stravarius lineup is a tight unit, and the band seems to enjoy being on stage together. Kotipelto fronts the show and sings powerfully, Jens Johanssen is doing his ”thing” behind the keyboards, and the rhythm section of Lauri Porra and Rolf Pilve is solid. I also think that Matias Kupiainen is an almost criminally underrated guitarist. Hopefully, that will change after people hear SURVIVE. One wish I have for the band. Maybe they should be brave enough to drop some of the old worn-out songs like ”Paradise” and replace those with some other stuff because there are lof songs to choose from on their discography.
Shine in the Dark
4000 Rainy Nights
World on Fire
Hunting High and Low
German thrash metal legend Kreator has been a regular visitor to Tuska Festival for decades already. The band released its fifteenth studio album HATE ÜBER ALLES last June, and the new world tour started a few weeks ago at Metalfest -festival in the Czech Republic. Since then, Kreator has been constantly on the road, and this show in Tuska was their third performance in three days.
The band opened up with ”Violent Revolution,” followed by the new album title track and ”Phobia.” The band’s stage looked really cool. Massive album cover backdrops changed between the songs, there were ”hanged bodies” on the stage sides, and the pyro effects were enormous. The band sounded great, but, as I was guessing, because of the super tight touring schedule, there was a bit of tiredness shown on the stage. Especially Mille Petrozza looked very tired at times, and his headbanging wasn’t as intensive as usual. But if Mille’s performance was now a bit tired, that word can’t be used on the band’s new bassist Frédéric Leclercq. The man was super active on stage, and there were no sights of weariness. Compared to his predecessor, Christian “Speesy” Giesler, Frédéric was like he was from another planet on stage. He has brought a new breath of life to Kreator on many levels. The same thing happened back in the day when Sami Yli-Sirniö joined the band in 2001. Don’t get me wrong. Sami is still doing great in the band, especially on the guitar solos, but now the youth has taken over Kreator.
Unlike many other bands of the same age, Kreator is not afraid to rely on its newer material. There were songs from eleven out of fifteen albums on the setlist. Still, the main focus of the list was on the more recent” Yli-Sirniö” -era, material including ”Satan is Real,” Phantom Antichrist,” Strongest of the Strong,” and ”Enemy of God.” Of course, towards the end, the early classics ”Flag of Hate” and ”Pleasure to Kill” we heard as well. I was waiting to hear a couple of songs, like ”Terror Zone,” but overall, the setlist was an excellent mix of songs from the band’s entire career. There’s still plenty of life left in Kreator, and to me, they were the real headliner of the last day of Tuska 2022.
It will be interesting to see them again in September when they return to Helsinki on their headline tour.
Hate Über Alles
Satan Is Real
Hordes of Chaos (A Necrologue for the Elite)
Hail to the Hordes
666 – World Divided
Awakening of the Gods
Enemy of God
People of the Lie
Strongest of the Strong
Flag of Hate
Pleasure to Kill
Jinjer was originally booked to appear at Tuska Festival, but when the war outbroke in their home country, and the whole world went totally upside down, they were forced to cancel the entire summer tour. After all, the band got new permission from the Ukrainian authorities. Jinjer’s gig at Tuska was highly appreciated and expected by the audience and the press. The tent stage was overcrowded by thousands and thousands of people cheering for Jinjer. The front lady Tatiana Shmailyuk and the rest of the Jinjer guys offered an intensive set of the metalcore at its best. The audience went totally apeshit and lived up to Jinjer’s stuff. Tatiana dominated the whole stage from one side to another side, leaving both the guitarist and the bassists to hide at the back of the stage. She kept speeches about the war between Russia and Ukraine and received a wild response from the Tuska audience. The four-piece metalcore came, dominated, and conquered the Finnish Tuska crowd with the tight and breathtaking performance. It was obvious Jinjer gained more fanbase at Tuska.